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  • 攻克關鍵技術 破解輸電線路防山火難題

    發布日期: 2019-02-04 信息來源: 稿件庫

    攻克關鍵技術 破解輸電線路防山火難題

    本報記者 李勤奮 通訊員 趙志宇

     

            

            【項目小檔案】

     

       項目名稱:電網大范圍山火災害帶電防治關鍵技術

     

      主要參與單位:國網湖南省電力有限公司,國網電力科學研究院有限公司,湖南省湘電試研技術有限公司,陜西銀河消防科技裝備股份有限公司

     

      項目簡介:山火災害會造成大量線路跳閘停電和燒損,嚴重威脅電網安全運行。該項目提出水霧絕緣高電壓帶電滅火新原理,發明絕緣滅火劑與高揚程帶電滅火新裝備,創建電網人為山火預測與風險快速分析新技術,攻克電網山火帶電-高程-精準滅火世界難題。項目技術被鑒定為國際領先水平,填補電網山火帶電防治技術國內外空白。成果在27個省級電網廣泛應用,顯著提高了電網抵御山火災害的能力,社會與經濟效益顯著。

     

      山火災害遍及全球,是近十年電網安全運行中最嚴重的危害之一。山火大范圍短時集中爆發,會大幅降低空氣絕緣,造成大量線路跳閘停電和燒損。近年來,我國鄉村已由燒煤、氣取代燒柴草,樹木雜草叢生,祭祖、燒荒等引起的山火年均多達7萬處。山火持續時間長,易導致多條線路同時長時間停電,嚴重威脅電網安全與電力供應。

     

      1月上旬,由國網湖南省電力有限公司主導研發的“電網大范圍山火災害帶電防治關鍵技術”項目,獲得2018年度國家技術發明二等獎。該技術填補了國內外電網山火廣域監測技術的空白。

     

      “千里眼”追蹤山火蹤跡

     

      2016年2月初,國網湖南防災減災中心準確預測及研判春節山火形勢,發布了《春節期間山火預測分析報告》和《國家電網公司十三省份春節期間山火預測專題分析報告》,指出湖南全省春節前后天氣晴好,受祭祀用火習俗影響,火源較多,防山火工作形勢嚴峻;湖南、江西、福建、遼寧、湖北、安徽、浙江等地區春節前后輸電線路附近容易發生山火。國網湖南電力迅速發布山火黃色預警,對春節前后防山火工作進行了全面部署。

     

      預測山火時,衛星這個“千里眼”是個好幫手。通過過境衛星獲得的氣象數據,包括降水、植被、濕度數據,以及累積疊加歷史上衛星監測火點的數據。正是在這龐大的數據庫中,潛藏著不為人知的規律。

     

      國網湖南防災減災中心預測室徐勛建博士介紹,歷史上我國中東部地區的火點分布圖,看上去就是“一片紅”,毫無頭緒。但是,當根據二十四節氣時間點進行分類以后,可以發現,在芒種和夏至時節,安徽省的山火發生頻率較高,主要是因為這段時間農民焚燒秸稈較多。隨后他們還發現,在清明時節,全國大部分省份都屬于紅色區域,山火火點較多,符合我國的民俗習慣。“通過‘千里眼’得到的火點分布圖原本顯得雜亂無章,但根據農歷的時間序列進行聚類分析,就能得到非常有規律的全國歷史火點發生情況,對于山火預報幫助很大。”徐勛建說。

     

      “絕緣霧”杜絕導電隱患

     

      輸電線路電壓高,而傳統滅火方式由于水導電,帶電滅火易發生人員觸電傷亡,危險性大,電網山火滅火技術極具挑戰性。

     

      項目組負責人陸佳政博士提出了“將水霧化產生空氣絕緣間隙”的思路,隨即項目組搭建高壓水霧絕緣長間隙試驗平臺開展試驗,發現了水霧絕緣比干燥空氣絕緣還高的反常現象。他們當時覺得不可思議,還以為是試驗數據測量有問題。但經過反復試驗,結論一致,他們確認了這一令人激動的發現。通過開展更深入的研究,項目組揭示了水霧吸收電子和光子提升絕緣的機理,攻克了高壓帶電滅火這一世界性難題。

     

      帶電滅火的問題雖然解決了,但還有“滅火后易復燃”這一“攔路虎”。野外風大,常規滅火劑缺乏防復燃措施。項目組深入研究輸電線路山火高效防復燃滅火劑,配制了數百種滅火劑樣品,反復不斷地進行滅火試驗。每配好一組試驗滅火劑,他們就去模擬滅火試驗場頂著烈日開展試驗。

     

      經過上千次反復試驗分析,項目組成功開發了高效降溫防復燃滅火劑,滅火效果是普通滅火液的10倍,能以很少的劑量實現快速滅火,并且防止復燃,解決了野外滅火易復燃、缺水的大難題。由于滅火效率提高,滅火流量大大降低,在滅火功率一定的情況下,輸水壓力就大大提高,從而大幅提升揚程。他們還研制了輸電線路山火帶電高揚程滅火裝置,揚程高達500米,能對高山上的輸電線路山火實施撲滅作業。

     

      “超級腦”精準預測火點

     

      輸電線路山火帶電高揚程滅火裝置滅山火的效果又快又好,可是一旦不能及時發現、延誤救火時機,再好的滅火裝備也是無用。在還沒有起火以前,能否提前預測哪里可能會有山火發生?這時,就需要“超級腦”出場。

     

      徐勛建帶領的山火預測小組從多種因素、幾大類海量數據中摸索規律、設計預測模型,再利用超級計算機的“超級腦”進行計算。之前,預測小組使用的是每秒130萬億次的超級計算機,但是預測精度不夠。如果以前是預測30千米內火點,現在就要預測3千米內的火點,精度提升了,數據量相當于多了100倍,130萬億次的超算計算能力就不夠用了。為了把預報準確率從30%提高到90%,預測小組把和山火發生相關的所有數據都集中起來,并且升級超級計算機,對山火進行計算預測。630萬億次計算能力的計算機幫他們一次次預測、監測、對比、印證,經歷千百次實驗之后,預測精度越來越高,直到目前,預測精度已經達到97.94%。

     

      2018年4月3日,在湖南株洲攸縣大規模山火發生前夕,徐勛建帶領的小組準確做出了預報。他們及時把裝備和人員部署到預測點線路桿塔附近,成功阻止了山火的進一步發展。

     

      截至目前,“電網大范圍山火災害帶電防治關鍵技術”項目累計授權國家發明專利57項、海外專利4項,編制國家標準2項、專著1部,項目成果在國家電網和南方電網27個省級電網廣泛應用,累計撲滅輸電線路附近山火2358處,連續4年創造了湖南電網山火多發的清明期間線路零跳閘紀錄。國家電網公司經營區山火引發的跳閘率顯著下降,未發生山火嚴重停電事故。項目技術與裝備成為公司防山火標準配置,還推廣應用到黑龍江等省的森林火災撲救中,并在高層建筑滅火中得到應用。

     

            信息來源:《國家電網報》1月29日第5版

     

    天天中彩票
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