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  • 促進新能源發展的建議措施

    發布日期: 2017-08-06 信息來源: 稿件庫

            技術方面

      推進煤電機組靈活性改造,加快抽水蓄能電站建設,促進自備電廠參與系統調峰,提高系統靈活性。按照國家能源局“十三五”電力規劃,“十三五”期間,“三北”地區將完成煤電改造2.15億千瓦,增加調峰能力4500萬千瓦以上。其次,加快抽水蓄能電站建設,“十三五”期間全國力爭開工6000萬千瓦,2020年裝機達到4000萬千瓦左右。再次,我國自備電廠占了一定比例(2015年年底華北、東北、西北自備電廠占火電比重分別達到13%、9%、25%),而自備電廠基本不參與電網調峰,調峰壓力均由公共電網承擔,從行業公平角度考慮,自備電廠承擔公用調峰職責,提升電網調峰消納能力。

     

      擴大電網覆蓋范圍,提高接納新能源能力。“十三五”期間,全國繼續擴大同步電網規模,逐漸形成統一的同步電網,促進新能源的跨區輸送及消納,2017年建成大氣污染防治“四交四直”特高壓工程和酒泉—湖南、扎魯特—青州直流工程,2018年建成準東—皖南直流工程。優化送端電源接入系統方案,加強送端電網建設,并探索建設大容量柔性直流示范工程,遠距離匯集風電、光伏發電,實現風光水多能互補,最大限度解決棄風棄光問題。

     

      發展智能配電網,適應分布式新能源及多元化負荷接入。針對終端用電負荷呈現多樣化、互動化、智能化的新趨勢,綜合應用智能配電網的各項新技術,滿足分布式能源并網,通過實施實施用戶智能友好互動工程和開展微電網示范工程,提升配電網接納新能源、分布式電源及多元化負荷的能力,力爭實現配電網對分布式電源的100%就地消納。針對用戶側“雙向互動”的新特征,可以利用限制短路電流、對傳統保護方案進行改進、利用多點信息設計保護方案等思路重構繼電保護方案,適應多電源復雜網絡。

     

      加快推進電能替代和需求側響應。制定具有針對性的電能替代價格優惠政策,降低用電成本,提高用戶參與電能替代的積極性,在居民采暖、工業與農業生產、交通運輸領域引導用戶參與調峰,主動響應新能源出力變化。

     

      政策保障及市場機制方面

      營造有利于新能源消納的政策環境。近期,出臺相關政策保障新能源健康有序發展,比如完善新能源目標引導制度,建立健全綠色證書制度等。中長期來看,新能源在競爭性市場中將具有成本優勢,政策保障可以適當淡出。

     

      逐步取消發電計劃,推進電力跨省跨區交易,實現全國性資源優化配置。近期,有序放開發電計劃,推進現貨市場建設,建立新能源跨區消納的市場機制。中長期,建立跨省區的全國性電力交易市場,促進跨省區資源優化配置和電力消納,逐步實現各省區電力交易的開放與融合,形成覆蓋更大范圍的多層次電力交易平臺。

     

      探索建立輔助服務市場,提高系統運行靈活性。近期,推動建立不同電源之間的利益補償機制,繼續嘗試試點電力輔助服務市場。中長期,探索引入容量市場和輔助服務市場,促進靈活電源建設,增加電源參與輔助服務的靈活性。

     

      調度運行管理方面

      加強對新能源功率預測的管理,提高預測精度與分辨率。未來,我國西部北部部分省區新能源裝機占比將超過50%,對新能源功率預測與管理提出更高要求,新能源發電功率預測將向高精度、高分辨率、中長期時間尺度方向發展,措施包括極端氣象事件預報提高預測分辨率,提高新能源發電功率預測精度,提供多時間尺度的預測產品,建立新能源發電計劃申報考核制度等。

     

      優化高比例新能源運行控制手段,實現高比例清潔能源消納。“十三五”末新能源將逐步納入日前、日內和實時市場中,需要在調度中考慮市場機制及運行風險,措施包括基于市場機制的多種新能源互補優化調度,高比例新能源運行的風險預警與主動防御等。

     

      增加系統慣量,提高系統運行穩定性。隨著新能源出力占比不斷增加,系統電力電子化特征凸顯,電網轉動慣量和等效規模不斷減小,可以通過虛擬同步機增加系統慣量,提高系統運行穩定性。“十三五”應開始逐步在“三北”地區布局虛擬同步機,之后,推廣至其他地區。

     

      優化跨區通道的運行方式,有力促進新能源的大范圍跨區消納。目前我國已投運直流輸電工程一般跟隨受端區域負荷特性運行,在每一時段內輸電功率恒定。這樣雖然有利于受端區域更輕松地接納新能源發電,但并未充分利用送受端區域的調節能力,通道潛力未得到充分挖掘。未來可在綜合考慮受端電網接納能力的前提下,在送端風電低谷時段,降低直流輸電功率,而在送端系統風電大發時段,提高直流輸電功率。通過充分利用直流跨區通道的功率調節能力,擴大新能源消納規模。

     

    天天中彩票
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